Grapes seem to have been originated in the Mediterranean regions of southern Europe and the Middle East, thriving in the dark, moist, humus-rich, neutral-to-alkaline soil in the sun and warm climates; and the grape’s hardiness varies according to the cultivar.
Going back many centuries, the Grapevine was wild. When unattended, it grows kind of like a tree, the way it wraps around anything in its way, just like ivy on walls, and different sub-species were created through natural selection, resulting in mutations of the vine.
Cultivation of the Grape occurred in early historic times in southwest Asia or southern Transcaucasia, Armenia and Georgia, and cultivation of the domesticated grape spread to other parts of the Old World over the years. Wine is fermented juices of Grapes and has been used in many different cultures for at least 4,500 years, originating most likely in the Middle East. Egyptians, dating from 2500 B.C. have referred to wines, and there are frequent references to wine in the Old Testament. The wine was also used by early Minoan, Greek and Etruscan civilizations, and the Roman army can be thanked for introducing wine making throughout Europe as they created an expanding Roman Empire. Years later, the role of wine for religious use in Christian churches helped to maintain the industry after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Present day science has now established the health benefits included in the juice, skin, and seeds of the Red Grape. Grape Skin and Red Wine Extracts possess high concentrates of proanthocyanidins that confer a strong antioxidant and free radical benefits, like]
Phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, including catechin, and quercetin, that fight against clotting in the blood. Something interesting to remember is the “French Paradox.” The French diets include more than thirty percent more fat than the diets of Americans, but the French suffer forty percent fewer heart attacks, and this is due to their consumption of Red Wine. Scientists in France have compiled a guide through a textbook, that outlines the various treatments derived from Grape Seeds, Grape Skins, Red Wine and their respective benefits. This has now been named “Vinotherapy,” and people throughout the world are beginning to explore the benefits of Red Wine Grapes as detoxifiers, high antioxidants, and cell regenerators. Grape Skin provides a convenient way to enjoy this simple fruit’s many health benefits.
Brought into the light as a result of a multitude of studies investigating the phytochemical properties of plant materials, Resveratrol more than lives up to its reputation. This unique antioxidant has been called a fountain of youth for its effectiveness against a variety of age-related diseases. Let’s explore seven facts about Resveratrol including what it is and why you should get it regularly from your diet.
1. What Is Resveratrol?
Resveratrol is a phenolic compound, created by plants to aid in injury, infection, and fungal attack. There is two ways this can happen, the trans- and cis- molecule form, with trans-resveratrol being the highly-absorbable form. The compound has potent antioxidant effects, thereby supporting health at the cellular level.
2. Unique Antioxidant
Unlike many different antioxidants, resveratrol will cross the blood-brain barrier, offering support for the brain and nervous system. This allows for active, direct support for neural health. A recent study of 23 older adults observed significant improvements in memory among participants taking resveratrol, with the additional benefit of improved glucose metabolism.
3. Mimics Caloric Restriction
It can reduce calories by 30%, and support health and longevity by creating low-level biological stressors. Resveratrol will stimulate the creation of adiponectin; this is the same hormone observed to increase in individuals practicing caloric restriction. This hormone will promote metabolic and cardiovascular health through weight loss, lipid metabolism, and the regulation of blood sugar levels. Even though the long-term effects of caloric restriction in humans continue to be evaluated, it has shown to advance longevity by around 40% or more in some species.
4. Mitigates Oxidative Stress
Many studies have researched resveratrol’s ability to reduce oxidative stress from free radical damage. In 2011 a study evaluated the response of 20 human volunteers, with 10 in each group, half would get resveratrol and half would get placebo over six weeks of treatment. Those in the test group enjoyed reduced oxidative stress and lower levels of swelling and redness commonly associated with numerous age-related diseases.
5. May Promote Healthy Testosterone Levels In Men
Research shows resveratrol positively affects fertility and reproductive function in men. A study using animal models reported to have increased blood testosterone levels in supplemented groups. While this is good news for men of childbearing age, older people could benefit as well. Testosterone strengthens bones, increases muscle mass, and encourages a positive outlook in people.
6. Positive Effects on Estrogen Levels
Women who consume resveratrol seem to enjoy their benefits. A study of 34 postmenopausal women taking resveratrol daily for 12 weeks reported many improvements in estrogen metabolism and an increase of SHBG, steroid hormone binding globulin. SHBG helps enable the body to make better use of the availability of the sex hormones already present. In essence, this study suggests resveratrol may support hormone balance.
7. Sources of Resveratrol
Primary dietary sources include red wine, chocolate, grapes, and peanuts. Unfortunately, only 25% of resveratrol from dietary sources is bioavailable due to its quick metabolizing rate. Supplements may offer more real values, making a greater amount of this anti-aging antioxidant available to cells. For this reason and its amazing benefits and potent antioxidant properties, I added resveratrol in Cell Fuzion™, my unique formula for cell and DNA support and protection.
While present in other plants, such as eucalyptus, spruce, and Lily, and in other foods such as mulberries and peanuts, resveratrol’s most abundant natural sources are Vitis vinifera, labrum, and muscadine grapes, Polygonum cuspidate.
Resveratrol (trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural compound found in red grape skin, Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidate), peanuts, blueberries and a couple of other berries. It is a very powerful antioxidant that is produced by some plants to defend them against environmental stresses. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which are believed to be the cause of aging. The Japanese knotweed is the plant source of the highest resveratrol content.
A significant amount of resveratrol is produced in the skin of grapes to defend the plant against fungal diseases and sun damage; so the wine has higher levels of resveratrol compared to other natural food. Red wine contains a little amount of resveratrol, 1 to 2 mg per 8 ounces of red wine. Although Red wine has much more resveratrol than white wine because red wines are fermented with the grape skins for a much longer time than white wines. The reason there are so many of the antioxidants including resveratrol that are naturally present in the grape skins is extracted into the wine. Resveratrol is also very present in the seeds and pomace of grapes.
Grapes grown in wet environments tend to have more resveratrol than grapes grown in more dry conditions. The theory behind this phenomenon is that grapes grown in humid climates produce more resveratrol to fight damaging fungus (i.e. grapes cultivated in dry conditions do not need to produce as much resveratrol to survive).
Resveratrol has been thought to be responsible for low rates of heart disease in the French population compared to other residents, in spite of the fact that they have many risk factors including a high-fat diet, smoking, and consumption of high amounts of coffee. All of these are known to have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, stroke and heart attacks. This benefit in the French population is due to the consumption of red wine, which is a source resveratrol. Other ingredients in wine or other factors may contribute to longevity seen in the French.
Resveratrol is a dietary supplement from red wine extracts, grape seed extracts, and Japanese knotweed extracts among others. Supplements on the market mostly come from Japanese knotweed because this plant has one of the highest concentrations of resveratrol found in nature.
The amount of resveratrol and the purity of it in supplements can vary widely. Micronized Resveratrol is available in pill or powder form since Resveratrol is not well-absorbed orally. The process of micronization significantly reduces the average particle size of a compound and increases absorption. Resveratrol is also available in solution form.
How does Resveratrol work?
Resveratrol protects the DNA of a cell and is a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidants can help prevent this cell damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are atoms caused by pollution, sunlight and our bodies natural burning of fat that can lead to cancer, aging and brain degeneration.
What are the benefits of taking Resveratrol?
Resveratrol has been known to have many health benefits like protecting the heart and circulatory system, lowering cholesterol, and protecting against blood clots which are the reason heart attacks and stroke occurs. Animal studies have suggested it can reduce blood sugar levels. Since resveratrol is considered an antioxidant, it is often promoted to reduce the incidence of various cancers. Studies on animals also suggest resveratrol may lower brain plaque levels in Alzheimer’s disease. But, well-controlled, human clinical trials are lacking in all of these areas, and many of the resveratrol claims are based in animal studies in mice.
The clinical utility of resveratrol in humans is under investigation. Studies suggest there might be benefits of weight loss, reduction in insulin resistance, and reducing mortality in diabetes. Human research with resveratrol is becoming more involved with scientists studies. A small randomized study in the November 2011 issue of Cell Metabolism demonstrated that 150 mg of resveratrol once daily for 30 days significantly lowered mean systolic and arterial blood pressure, tumor necrosis factor (a marker of inflammation), plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and plasma triglyceride concentrations, among other findings. Researchers note that longer studies at higher doses increase results.
What other drugs will affect Resveratrol?
Drug interaction studies with resveratrol have hardly been conducted. The probable interaction with blood thinners should be taken into consideration. Patients taking blood-thinning medications such as aspirin, warfarin, or clopidogrel should advise their doctor that they are taking resveratrol. Also, patients should always inform their health care providers of any dietary supplements or over-the-counter medications they use.
Who should not take Resveratrol?
Patients with blood disorders, that can cause bleeding, should be monitored by a physician while taking this product. People bout to have surgery should stop taking resveratrol two weeks before the surgery and not take it for two weeks after the surgery to reduce the risk of bleeding.
Don’t take resveratrol supplements or excessive amounts of natural foods containing resveratrol while pregnant or breastfeeding. There is a lack of research in this area to prove safety. Resveratrol should be avoided in children.
Resveratrol little estrogenic activity, and until more is known, women with cancers and other conditions that are estrogen sensitive should seek medical advice before taking resveratrol.
Resveratrol reduces the activity of enzymes involved in drug metabolism but whether it has a significant effect in humans has not been studied.
What are the possible side effects of Resveratrol?
Adverse effects of resveratrol in humans have not been reported. Long-term side effects are not known. A small study conducted in 2011 in obese patients given 150 mg per day of resveratrol noted little weight loss.
Scientists have solved a mystery that has been a huge complication for scientists since resveratrol, a chemical that is found in red wine and other foods, was first discovered to have significant health benefits.
Newest research that Resveratrol effect on inflammation also shows it can be used to treat very deadly inflammatory disease, like appendicitis, peritonitis, and systemic sepsis.
Resveratrol reduces inflammation that prevents your body from creating two different molecules known to trigger inflammation which is sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D.
Resveratrol is a group of compounds which are known as polyphenols. They’re known to act as a powerful antioxidant that is found in certain fruits, vegetables, and cocoa. This is emerging as a newly discovered fountain of youth. The science surrounding this compound is so compelling that it has become one the favorite antioxidants that scientists believe can show real promise of health benefits.
Resveratrol is typically associated with grapes and red wine and was initially thought to be the French had a nickname the “French Paradox” because of the tendency for French people to have incredible cardiovascular health even though they had a “poor” diet and the love for wine.
One study shows a way in which resveratrol can help protect your health by preventing your body from creating sphingosine kinase and phospholipase D the two molecules that are known to trigger inflammation in the body.
Even though inflammation is a natural response that your body has, it’s a process that your body’s white blood cells go into protective mode, and don’t let invaders in such as bacteria and viruses; it’s very much impossible for your body to function in a chronically inflamed state.
Chronic inflammation is not a good bodily response, in fact, it has been linked to many chronic diseases including heart disease.
Resveratrol is different among antioxidants because it can cross the blood-brain barrier to protect your brain and nervous system.
Studies have shown that it is beneficial and wide reaching to include:
- Protecting your cells from free radical damage
- Inhibiting the spread of cancer, especially prostate cancer
- Lowering your blood pressure
- Keeping your heart healthy and improving elasticity in your blood vessels
- Normalizing your anti-inflammatory response
- Helping to prevent Alzheimer’s disease
Since resveratrol shows to be so effective at defending many diseases associated with aging, it is often referred to as the “fountain of youth” that can extend one’s life.
Many animal studies show that resveratrol has helped overweight, unhealthy mice run a longer distance and live about 20 percent longer. It has been studied and found to increase the life of human cells.
Resveratrol also seems to produce many similar benefits as exercise, and it would be a powerful addition to using.
It’s gained a ton of attention for its anti-aging and disease-fighting powers. Research also suggests it will help protect you against:
- Heart disease: It will contribute to reducing inflammation, which lowers LDL, and “bad” cholesterol, and makes it harder for clots to form that which can lead to a heart attack.
- Cancer: It is thought to limit the spread of cancer cells and begin killing them.
- Alzheimer’s: It could protect nerve cells from being damaged and fight against the plaque buildup that will lead to the disease.
- Diabetes: Resveratrol prevents insulin resistance, a condition in which the body will become less sensitive to blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin. This situation will likely lead to diabetes.
Many researchers believe that resveratrol activates the SIRT1 gene. This gene is found to protect the body against the effects of being obese and unhealthy as well as the diseases of aging.
Many studies have been done and they not discovered any severe issues, even when the resveratrol is taken in high doses.
Although, these supplements might have an interaction with blood thinners like warfarin (Coumadin) and NSAID medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen. This could raise your chance of bleeding.
As for other supplements, the FDA does not regulate resveratrol at all. This makes it challenging and dangerous for consumers to know exactly what they’re getting or whether the product is useful. They don’t even have any specific dosage recommendation, and how much you should be taking can vary from one supplement to another
The dosages in most resveratrol supplements are typically much lower than the amounts that have been shown beneficial in research. Most supplements contain 250 to 500 milligrams. To get the dose used in some studies, people would have to consume 2 grams of resveratrol (2,000 milligrams) or more a day.
Resveratrol is found in grapes, which produce it as a defense against fungi. Muscadine grapes have the highest concentration of resveratrol in nature because of their extra thick skins and numerous seeds where it is concentrated.
Resveratrol is also found in abundance in red wine and grapes, and it’s highly soluble in alcohol, meaning your body may absorb more of it from red wine than from other sources. But there are other sources out there, including cocoa, dark chocolate, and peanuts.
If you decide to take a Resveratrol supplement, there are many products on the market. Make sure to look for ones made from muscadine grapes, they use the whole grape skins and seeds, as this is where many of the nutritional benefits are concentrated.
How do the French have such a bad diet by eating more fat, sugar and fatty foods, plus drink more wine, but yet still have less heart health issues? The answer to this puzzling question, commonly known as the “French paradox,” is believed to be due to a higher intake of a particular phytonutrient called resveratrol, found naturally in foods like red wine. Like other antioxidants and phytonutrients, such as lycopene found in tomatoes or lutein found in carrots, resveratrol is a potent compound that regenerates the body all the way at the cellular level.
Studies made over the past several decades in many different medical journals, including the European Journal of Food Pharmacology and American Journal of Hypertension, found that resveratrol decreases the risk of heart disease among other common health concerns. Although we might not have known exactly how wine was able to promote better health, even Plato developed the health perks of drinking it in moderation. He’s been quoted as saying, “Nothing more excellent or valuable than wine was ever granted by the gods to man.”
You don’t have to be a wine drinker to benefit from resveratrol. Other sources include deeply- colored berries and real dark chocolate/cocoa, but the most efficient way is through a supplement. Along with helping to keep arteries clear from plaque buildup and protecting a heart getting older, this phytonutrient has many other health benefits too — including reducing inflammation, potentially contributing to prevent obesity and protecting cognitive health among the elderly.
What Is Resveratrol?
Resveratrol is a polyphonic bioflavonoid antioxidant that’s produced by individual plants and found in foods and drinks that are known to halt the effects of aging. Resveratrol is known as a phytoestrogen because of its ability to interact with estrogen receptors positively. Plants that produce resveratrol and other types of antioxidants do so partly as a defense mechanism and response to stressors within their environments, including radiation, the presence of insects or other predators, injury, and fungal infections. Resveratrol today is known to be one of the strongest protectors against symptoms associated with aging and free radical damage.
Researchers show that the most naturally abundant sources of resveratrol are plants, such as the skin of red grapes, red wine, raw cocoa, and dark berries, such as lingonberries, blueberries, mulberries, and bilberries. Red wine is probably the best-known source, mostly due to its high levels thanks to the fermentation process that turns grape juice into alcohol. During the making of red wine, grape seeds and skins ferment in the grape’s juices, which has a positive effect on levels and availability of resveratrol.
The main benefits of resveratrol were first discovered when scientists found that yeast and other microbes, insects, and animals had resveratrol, experienced an increased lifespan as a result. Various studies continued to confirm that has amazing anti-aging benefits, shown in studies conducted on animal and insects like fruit flies, fish, mice and nematode worms, all of which had longer lives compared to control groups that were not treated with this phytonutrient.
5 Resveratrol Benefits
1. Has Anti-Aging and Anti-Cancer Effects
Resveratrol is a very powerful antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals produced during common bodily functions, such as eating and exercise. Damage is accelerated due to poor lifestyle habits like smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, and in response to the environments pollution and toxins. If left unchecked, free radicals can damage cells and are thought to be a cause of life-threatening diseases and earlier death. Eating plant foods high in antioxidants and phytonutrients have been shown to offer antioxidative, anticarcinogenic and antitumor benefits that protect adults from many age-related diseases.
According to research published by the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Seville in Spain, “One of the most unusual biological activities of resveratrol soundly investigated during the late years has been its cancer chemopreventive potential. Recently it has been demonstrated that it blocks the multistep process of carcinogenesis at various stages: tumor initiation, promotion, and progression.”
It’s also believed that the mechanisms for its cancer-protecting activities involve downregulation of the inflammatory response to inhibition of synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, among other activities.
2. Protects Cardiovascular Health
Because its anti-inflammatory, resveratrol has been shown to offer great protection against atherosclerosis, high LDL which is bad cholesterol, the formation of blood clots and myocardial infarction. Consuming more has also been shown to help improve circulation and have beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in some with a higher risk for metabolic syndrome.
3. Helps Protect the Brain and Cognitive/Mental Health
Resveratrol is unique as its antioxidants can cross the blood-brain barrier to protect the brain and the nervous system, unlike other antioxidants that cannot. Many recent studies done by scientists at the Nutrition Research Center at Northumbria University in the U.K. shows that resveratrol will noticeably increase blood flow to the brain, suggesting a considerable benefit to healthy brain function and neuroprotective effects.
This can mean consuming more can increase protection against cognitive and mental problems, such as Alzheimer’s, dementia and others. Other studies find, such results published in the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, demonstrated that even a single infusion of resveratrol could elicit neuroprotective effects on cerebral (brain) neuronal loss and damage. These results from increased free radical scavenging and cerebral blood elevation due to resveratrol’s effects.
4. May Help Prevent Obesity
Findings in animal studies have found that resveratrol exerts positive effects on rodents fed a high-calorie diet, helping prevent fat storage and regulating insulin levels. Others research has shown that resveratrol may contribute to reducing body weight and adiposity in obese animals, which some experts believe is due to activating the SIRT1 gene that’s thought to protect the body against the effects of obesity.
It’s not clear how this translates to humans consuming foods or drinks like wine and berries. However, studies have found links between adults eating balanced diets that include moderate amounts of wine and healthier body weights.
5. Benefits Those with Diabetes or Pre-diabetes
Studies involving diabetic rats have shown that resveratrol can be able to reduce hyperglycemia and may also be of use in preventing and treating both obesity and diabetes. Resveratrol can be helpful for those with diabetes and prediabetes by reducing complications such as nerve damage and damage to the heart and helping manage insulin levels. It’s also known that this phytoestrogen positively affects insulin secretion and blood insulin concentrations, according to animal studies.
Resveratrol or trihydroxystilbene belongs to a class of polyphenolic compounds called stilbenes. Individual plants produce resveratrol and other stilbenoids in response to stress, injury, fungal infection, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Resveratrol is a fat-soluble compound that occurs in both trans and cis molecular configurations. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol also occur as glucosides, bound to a glucose molecule. One major resveratrol derivative is resveratrol glucoside, also called price.
Since the early 90s, when the presence of resveratrol in red wine was established, the science community has been searching the effects of resveratrol on health. It was said that resveratrol intake through moderate red wine consumption might help explain the fact that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) even though they are consuming foods high in saturated fat, a phenomenon dubbed the “French Paradox.” Reports on resveratrol to prevent cancer, delay the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, and elongate lifespan in experimental models have continued to generate scientific interest.
Metabolism and Bioavailability
Initial studies of the trans-resveratrol in humans found traces of the unmetabolized resveratrol in the plasma upon oral exposure of trans-resveratrol doses of 5 to 25 mg. Indeed, trans-resveratrol appears to be well absorbed by humans when taken orally, but its bioavailability is relatively small due to its rapid metabolism and elimination. Once absorbed, resveratrol is rapidly metabolized by conjugation to glucuronic acid and sulfate, forming resveratrol glucuronides, sulfates, and sulfa glucuronides. Sulfate conjugates are the primary forms of resveratrol metabolites found in plasma and urine in human.
Studies found that the administration of single doses of 25 mg of trans-resveratrol to healthy individuals resulted in peak blood concentrations of total resveratrol around 60 minutes later, at about 1.8-2 liter, depending on whether resveratrol was administered in wine, vegetable juice, or grape juice. A study in 40 healthy subjects who received single ascending doses of oral trans-resveratrol showed that plasma concentrations of unmetabolized resveratrol peaked between 0.8 and 1.5 hours after resveratrol administration. These values were remarkedly below those used to elicit chemopreventive effects of resveratrol in vitro experiments. In contrast, following a single oral dose of 5 g of trans-resveratrol, the peak plasma concentrations of particular resveratrol conjugates were found to be about two to eight times higher than those of unmetabolized resveratrol. Compared to a single dose administration, the repeated intake of 5 g/day of trans-resveratrol for 29 days was found to result in significantly greater peak plasma concentrations of trans-resveratrol and two resveratrol glucuronide conjugates. Repeated doses of 1 g/day of trans-resveratrol could yield maximum plasma concentrations of about 22 μM for resveratrol sulfate (the most abundant sulfate conjugate in humans) and about 7-8 μM for typical monoglucuronide conjugates.
Some studies have examined the influence of food matrix on resveratrol absorption and bioavailability. One study had reported that bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine did not differ when the wine was consumed with a meal versus on an empty stomach. In another, the absorption of supplemental resveratrol was found to be delayed, but not reduced, by the presence of food in the stomach. A third study concluded that it reduced by the amount of fat in the diet, but not by the co-administration of quercetin or alcohol.
Information about the bioavailability of resveratrol in humans is important because most of the experimental research conducted to date has been exposing cells to resveratrol concentrations up to 100 times greater than peak plasma concentrations observed in humans, and in animal models given very high (non-dietary) doses of resveratrol. While cells that line the walls of the digestive tract are exposed to unmetabolized resveratrol, other tissues are exposed to resveratrol metabolites. At present, little is known about the biological activity of resveratrol metabolites. If some muscles are capable of converting resveratrol metabolites back to resveratrol, stable resveratrol conjugates in tissues could make the body regenerate it after it pools.
The biological significance of resveratrol has been primarily investigated in test tubes and cultured cells, and to a lesser extent, in animal models. Of note, a recent publication by Tomé-Carneiro et al. thoroughly reviewed the most relevant preclinical studies published in the past decades. It is important always to remember that many of the biological activities discussed below were observed in cells with resveratrol at higher concentrations than those likely to be achieved in humans consuming resveratrol orally.
Direct Antioxidant Activity
In the test tube, resveratrol effectively scavenges (neutralizes) free radicals and other oxidants and inhibits low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Resveratrol was found to induce antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and catalase, and inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX). However, there isn’t much evidence that resveratrol is an important antioxidant in vivo. While oral consumption of resveratrol, circulating and intracellular levels of resveratrol in humans are likely to be much lower than that of other important antioxidants, such as vitamin C, uric acid, vitamin E, and glutathione. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of resveratrol metabolites, which comprise most of the circulating resveratrol, may be lower than that of resveratrol.
Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities
Endogenous estrogens are steroid hormones synthesized by humans and other mammals; these hormones bind to estrogen receptors within cells. The estrogen-receptor interacts within unique sequences in the DNA to modulate the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. The chemicals of resveratrol are very similar to the synthetic estrogen agonist, diethylstilbestrol, suggesting that resveratrol might also function as an estrogen agonist, might bind to estrogen receptors and elicit similar responses to endogenous estrogens. Although, in cell culture experiments, resveratrol was found to act either as an estrogen agonist or as an estrogen antagonist depending on such factors as cell type, estrogen receptor isoform, and the presence of endogenous estrogens. Most recently, resveratrol was shown to improve endothelial wound healing through an ERα-dependent pathway in an animal model of arterial injury.